Sunspots and Climate Change

Many climate scientists agree that sunspots and solar wind could be playing a role in climate change, but the vast majority view it as very minimal and attribute Earth’s warming primarily to emissions from industrial activity– and they have thousands of peer-reviewed studies available to back up that claim.

Ironically, the only way to really find out if phenomena like sunspots and solar wind are playing a larger role in climate change than most scientists now believe would be to significantly reduce our carbon emissions. Only in the absence of that potential driver will researchers be able to tell for sure how much impact natural influences have on the Earth’s climate.

Solar wind, according to NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, consists of magnetized plasma flares and in some cases is linked to sunspots. It emanates from the sun and influences galactic rays that may in turn affect atmospheric phenomena on Earth, such as cloud cover. Scientists are the first to admit that they have a lot to learn about phenomena like sunspots and solar wind, some of which is visible to humans on Earth in the form of Aurora Borealis and other far flung interplanetary light shows.

Some skeptics of human-induced climate change blame global warming on natural variations in the sun’s output due to sunspots and/or solar wind. “A rational thinker would understand that, especially if he or she has some understanding of the limits of human influence. The global warming boosters have this unbounded hubris that it is humans who control nature, and that human activity can terminally despoil the planet as well as cause its salvation.”

Sunspots are storms on the sun’s surface that are marked by intense magnetic activity and play host to solar flares and hot gassy ejections from the sun’s corona. Scientists believe that the number of spots on the sun cycles over time, reaching a peak– the so-called Solar Maximum– every 11 years or so.

Peter Foukal of the Massachusetts-based firm Heliophysics, Inc., who has tracked sunspot intensities from different spots around the globe dating back four centuries, also concludes that such solar disturbances have little or no impact on global warming. He adds, most up-to-date climate models– including those used by the United Nations’ prestigious Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)– incorporate the effects of the sun’s variable degree of brightness in their overall calculations.

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New Wyas of Looking at Climate Science

At first glance it’s hard to imagine how the proliferation of human activity upon the environment has been a major factor in climate change given that climate change alone is nothing new. Over two million years the earth’s history has seen enormous changes. In the last ten thousand years the warming and cooling of the earth has been on a larger scale that what we see today.
The right policy has been held at bay partially by having the right knowledge of what’s happening to the climate. The climate changes we see today are the result of only a century and a half of study, peanuts in comparison the huge shifts over the earths history.
The recent UN Climate Change Conference sought to put in place a policy to take over the Kyoto protocol. At its core were some recently publicised results:
The warming trend on the earth’s surface has been taking place since the early part of the twentieth century. The last ten years have been the warmest of that millennium.
There have been rapid signs of melting the Arctic circle. The sea ice there has fallen by around eight percent over thirty years.
The old inconsistency in the data between the temperature rise in the atmosphere and on the planets surface seems to have levelled out. They appear to rise in parallel.
The Scripps Institute of Oceanography in California noted that the ocean has been warming at different depths for over 65 years. These results match the predictions that warming has been induced more by greenhouse gases that as a result of small changes in the suns heat output.
There has been an observed and recorded link between the sea surface temperature and the frequency and intensity of tropical storms, typhoons and hurricanes.
The existing computer models of the change in ocean currents, in particular in the North Atlantic, are correct.
There are however still some unknowns. The solar hypothesis is now known to be a lesser contributor, the miniscule changes in the suns heat output over its eleven year sunspot cycle is adding to the mix. The aerosol emissions from sulphurous fuel promote the formation of clouds, and as a consequence the sunlight reflected from the earths surface increases, effectively opposing the greenhouse gas effect.
Some even argue for the benefits of global warming, which include for example the opening up of new shipping lanes in the artic as the ice recedes, new oil drilling opportunities and longer harvest periods in Canada and Russia.
It seems climate change is inevitable and the small economic ideas such as banning coal subsidies bear little fruit as a means of curbing the problem. More than ever, political will must be demonstrated at first to show to industry and populations that it is even an issue. Perhaps, the will of the politicians must be met with achievable methods from the technological and scientific community.
Professor Socolow is leading the way with what he calls “stabilisation wedges”. On a graph of climate change, the space between the trend line and the stability line is known as the “stabilisation triangle’. By dividing these triangles into wedges and assigning realistic goals to each wedge the massive problem is given a usable and effective solution.
The goals to assign to the wedges range from greater overall efficiencies, the decarbonisation of electricity, fuel displacement by low carbon electricity, methane management, and natural carbon sinks. By further subdividing each wedge into sub wedges, such as decarbonised electricity being subdivided into nuclear power, renewable energy, natural gas as an alternative to coal, and the storage of carbon dioxide– these problems are confounded into what everyone has been looking for. A short list of solutions that together will balance the problem.
The management of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels could be dealt with through further carbon sequestration. The carbon dioxide is extracted at the source and is injected into porous rocks deep underground to prevent it escaping into the atmosphere.
Steam reformation is another technique. It is, in essence, a pre-emptive technique that reacts the fuel used with water to yield hydrogen. The hydrogen output is burnt to create electricity.
Of all the possibilities of reworking and inventing technologies, perhaps the best idea is the oldest idea. Replanting programmes. The idea of photosynthesis to combine carbon dioxide with water and sunlight is a relatively cheap and exponential idea and would be hugely effective.

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Taking Action from Climate Change

Climate change is real and it’s happening now. Most of us know that the earth is getting hotter, but do we actually understand its causes or its effect? Read our introduction to climate modification and join us as we take environment action to construct a brighter future.

What is Climate Change?

Climate change is, quite literally, the environment changing due to the fact that the typical worldwide temperature is increasing. Increased greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere (CO2 in particular) are trapping heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. This impacts on international weather condition systems, causing whatever from unexpected rainfall to extreme heatwaves. The Earth has actually gone through durations of warming and cooling– and associated climate change– sometimes. What researchers are most worried about, and decided upon, is that the warming process is taking place far much faster than it has done before, and that the quick warming is caused by increasing levels of manufactured emissions. The world is already one degree Celsius warmer than it remained in pre-industrial times. This might not look like a lot however can have terrible effects for the world and the livelihoods of millions of individuals worldwide. Researchers alert that we must work to limit the temperature level increase to an optimum of 2 degrees against the 1990 base level, comprehended by global environment negotiations.

What are the main reasons for Environment Change?

There are natural causes that contribute to climate variation, but industrial practices lag the current quick velocity in international warming. The needs of a growing population have led to logging, burning fossil fuels, and intensive farming. These activities all produce greenhouses gases in our environment – gases such as co2, laughing gas and methane. Greenhouse gases trap heat from the sun instead of radiating it back to area. This triggers the earth’s environment to heat up in exactly what is called the greenhouse effect. In simply 200 years, the concentration of co2 in our environment has actually increased by 30%.

Exactly what are the primary effects and effects of Environment Change?
The effects of a changing environment have actually already had an influence on individuals’s livelihoods, along with on our wildlife and environment all around the world. In China, natural disasters hit 24.89 million hectares of crops in 2014, of which 3.09 million hectares were destroyed, whilst drought triggered a direct financial loss of 83.6 billion yuan– over 13 billion dollars. In Turkey delayed harvest in the Black Sea area in 2014 meant Turkish tea manufacturers suffered a loss of over 15% of their annual income, due to heavy frost. Overall, natural disasters in the last years have cost the world over $2.7 trillion dollars. Forest fires continue to threaten already endangered species, while altering climates and landscapes drive animals out of protected areas looking for water and livable surface. The installing expense of climate change impacts Unilever as a company likewise. We approximate Unilever is incurring yearly costs linked to the impacts of environment change of around $300m a year.

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How to Combat Climate Change

Global warming may be a huge problem, but there are lots of little things we can do to make a difference. If we attempt, most of us can do our part to decrease the amount of greenhouse gases that we took into the atmosphere. Many greenhouse gases originate from things we do every day. As we have discovered, these greenhouse gases trap energy in the environment and make the Earth warmer.

Driving an automobile or using electricity is not wrong. We simply need to be wise about it. Some individuals utilize less energy by carpooling. For instance, four individuals can ride together in one automobile instead of owning four cars to work. Read on for some additional methods you can help make the world a better place!

Inform Yourself
Learning about the environment is essential. There are many good books that will assist you learn. To obtain started, ask a teacher or a librarian for some suggestions.

Save Electrical energy
Whenever we use electricity, we help put greenhouse gases into the air. By shutting off lights, the television, and the computer system when you are through with them, you can help a lot.

Bike, Bus, and Walk
You can conserve energy by often taking the bus, riding a bike, or strolling.

Talk with Your Household and Pals
Talk with your family and friends about global warming. Let them understand what you’ve learned.

Plant Trees
Planting trees is fun and a terrific method to decrease greenhouse gases. Trees absorb co2, a greenhouse gas, from the air.

Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags, and papers. When you recycle, you send out less trash to the landfill and you assist in saving natural resources, like trees, oil, and aspects such as aluminum.

When You Purchase, Purchase Cool Things
There are great deals of methods we can enhance the environment. One of the methods to decrease the quantity of greenhouse gases that we took into the air is to buy products that do not utilize as much energy. By conserving energy, we help in reducing global warming and make the Earth a better place. Some items – like specific cars and trucks and stereos – are made specifically to conserve energy.

Some Things to Consider
Did you understand that you can help the environment if you purchase recyclable items instead of non-recyclable ones? Try to find the recycle mark – 3 arrows that make a circle – on the bundle. Recyclable products are normally made out of things that already have actually been utilized. It usually takes less energy to make recycled products than to make new ones. The less energy we use, the much better.

Solar power
Imagine that it’s a hot summer day. You put a scoop of ice cream on the walkway, and it melts. Why? Well, you most likely know that the sun triggers the ice cream to melt. But you might unknown that the sun produces solar energy. Solar power is a fancy method of stating “energy that comes from the sun.” Solar power can be utilized to heat houses, buildings, water, and to make electricity. Today, more than 200,000 homes in the United States take advantage of the sun’s energy.

Cars are an important part of life for many people. But automobiles likewise trigger pollution and launch a lot of greenhouse gases into the air. Luckily, there are some vehicles that are better for the environment. These automobiles can travel longer on a smaller amount of gas. They do not pollute as much, either. Using these sort of vehicles can help in reducing the amount of greenhouse gases in the air.

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Impacts of Climate Change

Ever question how your little carbon impact really influences the big picture of environment adjustment? Though you could seem like your way of life is trivial as compared to points like oil extraction or car exhausts, the selections we make in our daily life– just how we navigate, just what we consume, how we live– play a major role in reducing climate change.

Here’s a checklist of methods you can take part the fight to reduce our carbon footprint. Whether you save it on your desktop computer, share it with buddies, or stick a copy on your fridge (PDF), this quick referral guide breaks down what you can do today to safeguard the earth for future generations.

ake a few mins to call your political agents as well as the media to tell them you want prompt activity on environment modification. Advise them that minimizing greenhouse gas exhausts will certainly also construct healthier areas, stimulate financial innovation and also create new tasks. As well as next time you go to the surveys, elect political leaders that support efficient climate plans.

You currently switch off lights– exactly what’s next? Adjustment light bulbs to small fluorescents or LEDs. Unplug computers, TVs and other electronic devices when not being used. Wash garments in cool or warm (not warm) water. Dryers are power hogs, so hang dry when you can. Set up a programmable thermostat. Look for the Energy Star ® tag when acquiring brand-new appliances. And a house power audit is less expensive than you think– book one today to discover even more means to conserve energy.

Ask your energy to change your account to clean, renewable power, such as from wind farms. If it doesn’t provide this option yet, ask it to.

Get natural as well as locally grown foods. Prevent processed things. Grow several of your personal food. As well as eat short on the food web– a minimum of one meat-free dish a day– since 18 percent of greenhouse gas exhausts originate from meat and also dairy products manufacturing. Food writer Michael Pollan sums it up ideal: “Eat food. Not excessive. Mostly plants.”

Rubbish hidden in land fills creates methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Keep stuff from garbage dumps by composting kitchen scraps and garden trimmings, and also reusing paper, plastic, steel as well as glass. Allow store managers and also manufacturers know you desire items with marginal or recyclable product packaging.

Carbon taxes make contaminating activities extra pricey as well as environment-friendly remedies extra affordable, allowing energy-efficient companies and also families to conserve money. They are one of the most reliable means to reduce Canada’s climate impact. If your province doesn’t have a carbon tax, ask your premier as well as MLA to implement one.

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Rising sea levels due to the melting of the polar ice caps (again, cau…

Rising sea levels due to the melting of the polar ice caps (again, caused by climate change) contribute to greater storm damage; warming ocean temperatures are associated with stronger and more frequent storms; additional rainfall, particularly during severe weather events, leads to flooding and other damage; an increase in the incidence and severity of wildfires threatens habitats, homes, and lives; and heat waves contribute to other consequences and human deaths.

Even small increases in Earth’s temperature caused by climate change can have severe effects. The earth’s average temperature has gone up 1.4 ° F over the past century and is expected to rise as much as 11.5 ° F over the next. That might not seem like a lot, but the average temperature during the last Ice Age was about 4º F lower than it is today.

While some quantities of these gases are a naturally occurring and critical part of Earth’s temperature control system, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 did not rise above 300 parts per million between the advent of human civilization roughly 10,000 years ago and 1900. Today it is at about 400 ppm, a level not reached in more than 400,000 years.

The primary cause of climate change is the burning of fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, which emits greenhouse gases into the atmosphere– primarily carbon dioxide. Other human activities, such as agriculture and deforestation, also contribute to the proliferation of greenhouse gases that cause climate change.

Climate change, also called global warming, refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth. An overwhelming scientific consensus maintains that climate change is due primarily to the human use of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. The gases trap heat within the atmosphere, which can have a range of effects on ecosystems, including rising sea levels, severe weather events, and droughts that render landscapes more susceptible to wildfires.

There is broad-based agreement within the scientific community that climate change is real. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration concur that climate change is indeed occurring and is almost certainly due to human activity.

While consensus among nearly all scientists, scientific organizations, and governments is that climate change is happening and is caused by human activity, a small minority of voices questions the validity of such assertions and prefers to cast doubt on the preponderance of evidence. Climate change deniers often claim that recent changes attributed to human activity can be seen as part of the natural variations in Earth’s climate and temperature, and that it is impossible or difficult to establish a direct connection between climate change and any single weather event, such as a hurricane.

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Trump Pulls US Out of Paris Accord

From Juan Cole’s blog…

“On Thursday, Trump delivered himself of one of the most brain-dead speeches ever given by an American president, more imbecilic even than Bush’s “Mission Accomplished” or Nixon’s “I am not a crook.” He withdrew from the Paris climate accords, saying that he was elected to represent Pittsburgh, not Paris. Trump alleged that he was somehow protecting the United States from dastardly furriners in cancelling the Paris commitment.

Climate change is on a spectrum. We can put up the temperature 3.6 degree Fahrenheit or we can put up the temperature 12 degrees F.

In fact, the US is particularly liable to damage from climate change. Here are the parts of the country he just deeply damaged.

Since Trump made that crack about Pittsburgh, let us begin by considering

1. What Climate Change will do to Pennsylvania:

“Increasing Temperature and Changing Precipitation Rising temperatures and shif ting rainfall patterns are likely to increase the intensity of both floods and droughts. Average annual precipitation in Pennsylvania has increased 5 to 10 per cent in the last century, and precipitation from extremely heavy storms has increased 70 percent in th e Northeast since 1958.”

Trump hasn’t given Pennsylvania more rust belt jobs. He has given it more Johnstown floods.

(The web site cited above is from the old EPA before Big Brother changed History and erased it; it is now hosted at a different server, as though we were a Middle Eastern dictatorship.)

See the rest of the post here

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New EPA Head Appoints Many Climate Change Skeptics

From the New York Times…

WASHINGTON — Days after the Senate confirmed him as administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Scott Pruitt appeared at the Conservative Political Action Conference and was asked about addressing a group that probably wanted to eliminate his agency.

“I think it’s justified,” he responded, to cheers. “I think people across the country look at the E.P.A. the way they look at the I.R.S.”

In the days since, Mr. Pruitt, a former Oklahoma attorney general who built a career out of suing the agency he now leads, has moved to stock the top offices of the agency with like-minded conservatives — many of them skeptics of climate change and all of them intent on rolling back environmental regulations that they see as overly intrusive and harmful to business.

Read the rest of the article here.

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Rural America is Acting on Climate Change: And Not Calling It Climate Change

From the Informed Comment Blog by Juan Cole…

President Donald Trump has the environmental community understandably concerned. He and members of his Cabinet have questioned the established science of climate change, and his choice to head the Environmental Protection Agency, former Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt, has sued the EPA many times and regularly sided with the fossil fuel industry.

Even if the Trump administration withdraws from all international climate negotiations and reduces the EPA to bare bones, the effects of climate change are happening and will continue to build.

In response to real threats and public demand, cities across the United States and around the world are taking action to address climate change. We might think this is happening only in large, coastal cities that are threatened by sea-level rise or hurricanes, like Amsterdam or New York.

Research shows, however, that even in the fly-over red states of the U.S. Great Plains, local leaders in small- to medium-size communities are already grappling with the issue. Although their actions are not always couched in terms of addressing climate change, their strategies can provide insights into how to make progress on climate policy under a Trump administration.

Visit the blog to read more…

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Trump White House Removes Climate Change Page From Website

It did not take long before the new Trump administration to start making its mark. One of the first changes was to remove the Climate Change page from the White House website. From the LA Times;

“Scientists, environmentalists and other concerned citizens were quick to notice that there is no longer any mention of climate change on the new White House website. ”

“It is not surprising that the Trump administration removed the former president’s policy pages from the White House website. The materials on the website are meant to be statements of the current administration’s policies — not those of their predecessors.

Indeed, President Obama’s team did the same thing when he was first sworn into office. ”

We will have to see what the results of Trump’s American Energy Plan ends up looking like before we can make any further analysis. But the things he ash said before are alarming. See the video below.

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